State doctoral exam topics

Measurement and Instrumentation

Theory of measurement

Basic concepts of representation and information theory of measurement: measurement scales and their types, expected measurement information, entropy value of the measurement error.

Measurement errors: systematic and random errors, procedures for eliminating systematic errors, ways of reducing random errors, errors of dynamic measurements and possibilities of their correction, errors of digital measurements.

Evaluation of measurement uncertainties: Type A and Type B standard uncertainties, combined and expanded uncertainties.

Physical principles utilized in realization of primary standards of electrical quantities: Josephson effect, quantum Hall effect.

Measurement and instrumentation

Digitization and reconstruction of signal: basic notions and phenomena - sampling theorem, statistical properties, quantization errors, spectrum aliasing and its elimination; measurement of time intervals, frequency and phase; digital storage oscilloscopes and transient recorders "typical configuration" input circuits, memory, adaptive sampling; generators - direct digital synthesis; reference voltage and current sources; lock-in amplifiers.

Electronic circuits of measuring instruments: measuring amplifiers (low-noise amplifiers, amplifiers with galvanic separation, high-frequency amplifiers), measuring converters, filters, integrators, reference voltage sources, switching sources.

Signal processing in measurement: basic notions and relations of Fourier transform, Fast Fourier Transform, importance of signal windows; cepstrum analysis, analytical signal; basic instrument realization of digital analyzers, digital filters; signal processing methods used in technical diagnostic.

Sensors and transducers

Sensors and transducers for thermal quantities measurement: resistance and semiconductor temperature detectors, thermocouples, pyrometry; linearization and error analysis; measuring circuits.

Methods and sensors for pressure, flow and level measurement: basic types of flow-meters and pressure-meters; ultrasound principles, eddy current sensors, Coriolis flow-meters.

Sensors and transducers for measurement of mechanical and geometrical quantities: magnetic, optoelectrical, capacitive and ultrasound sensors of position and dimensions measurement, sensors of linear and angular velocity and acceleration; sensors for force and torque measurement; tactile sensors.

Sensors for material analysis and nuclear radiation measurement: chemical sensors, biosensors, chromatography, spectroscopy; nuclear radiation sensors, especially semiconductor sensors.

Sensors for electrical and magnetic quantities: magnetic field measurement, semiconductor sensors, fluxgate sensors, resonance sensors, ferromagnetic magnetoresistors, SQUID; contactless current and voltage measurement.

Sensor technologies and applications: new materials and technologies in sensor technology, intelligent sensors, application of sensors in diagnostics.

Data acquisition systems (systems for data measurement, acquisition and processing)

Laboratory systems composed of individual instruments: standard interfaces allowing connection of instruments to the computer - basic properties and parameters; principle of communication; state registers principle; ways of programming.

Measurement systems based on PC: multifunction modules with standard interface - structure, possibility of data transfer to the computer memory, attainable transfer rate, dynamic properties of AD and DA modules, programming of systems based on PC; circuits for analog signal preprocessing.

Industrial modular systems with standard busses: basic parameters and properties, programming.

Distributed measurement systems: basic division of industrial busses; physical layer - the used transfer media.

Measured data transfer: transfer channel - type, transfer capacity, coding, security.

EMC of data acquisition systems.

Responsible person: RNDr. Patrik Mottl, Ph.D.